AIM: The purpose of this study was to develop and test the psychometric properties of the paediatric cancer coping scale in children with cancer. BACKGROUND: Coping is a mediator between stressful events and adaptation. However, existing tools cannot be used to assess and understand coping strategies in children with cancer in Taiwan. METHODS: A total of 229 children with cancer were recruited from three medical centres in Taiwan in 2008-2009. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were estimated by Cronbach’s alpha and intra-class correlation coefficient respectively. The factor structure was determined by exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was employed to test the convergent and discriminate validity. RESULTS: The paediatric cancer coping scale demonstrated internal consistency (alpha = 0.91) and a 2-week test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient = 0.86). Its construct validity was confirmed by factor analysis, which extracted and defined three categories of coping strategies: cognitive coping, problem-oriented coping and defensive coping; these three factors explained 40% of the total variance with factor loadings ranging from 0.31 to 0.71. Convergent and discriminate validities were demonstrated by significant correlations among the coping, resilience and anxiety subscales. CONCLUSIONS: The paediatric cancer coping scale is a reliable and valid scale to measure and examine coping strategies in children with cancer.