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Endoscopic-Assisted (Through a Mini Craniotomy) Corpus Callosotomy Combined With Anterior, Hippocampal, and Posterior Commissurotomy in Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome: A Pilot Study to Establish Its Safety and Efficacy

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Chandra, S. P.; Kurwale, N. S.; Chibber, S. S.; Banerji, J.; Dwivedi, R.; Garg, A.; Bal, C.; Tripathi, M.; Sarkar, C.; Tripathi, M.

BACKGROUND: Corpus callosotomy is a palliative procedure especially for Lennox-Gastaut semiology without localization with drop attacks. OBJECTIVE: To describe endoscopic-assisted complete corpus callosotomy combined with anterior, hippocampal, and posterior commissurotomy. METHODS: Patients with drug refractory epilepsy having drop attacks as the predominant seizure type, bilateral abnormalities on imaging, and moderate to severe mental retardation were included. All underwent a complete workup (including magnetic resonance imaging). RESULTS: Patients (n = 16, mean age 11.4 +/- 6.4 years, range 6-19 years) had a mean seizure frequency of 24.5 +/- 19.8/days (range 1-60) and a mean intelligence quotient of 25.23 +/- 10.71. All had syndromic diagnosis of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, with the following etiologies: hypoxic insult (10), lissencephaly (2), bilateral band heterotropia (2), and microgyria and pachygyria (2). Surgery included complete callosotomy and the section of anterior and posterior commissure by microscopic approach through a mini craniotomy (11) and endoscopic-assisted approach (5). Complications included meningitis (1), hyperammonemic encephalopathy (2), and acute transient disconnection (5). There was no mortality or long-term morbidity. Mean follow-up was 18 +/- 4.7 months (range 16-27 months). Drop attacks stopped in all. Seizure frequency/duration decreased >90% in 10 patients and >50% in 5 patients, and increased in 1 patient. All patients attained presurgical functional levels in 3 to 6 months. Child behavior checklist scores showed no deterioration. Parental questionnaires reported 90% satisfaction attributed to the control of drop attacks. The series was compared retrospectively with an age/sex-matched cohort (where a callosotomy only was performed), and showed better outcome for drop attacks (P < .003). CONCLUSION: This preliminary study demonstrated the efficacy and safety of complete callosotomy with anterior, hippocampal, and posterior commissurotomy in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (drop attacks) with moderate to severe mental retardation.

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