BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine mortality risk by calculating Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology and Perinatal Extension II (SNAP-PE-II) and Clinical Risk Index for Babies (CRIB) score, and evaluate prediction of the effects of antenatal corticosteroid and surfactant treatment on mortality. METHODS: This multicenter study was conducted simultaneously in five different centers in four different provinces in Southern Turkey between July 2012 and July 2013. A total of 1668 inborn subjects hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit within the first 12 h of delivery, and meeting the selection criteria, were included in the study, and CRIB and SNAP-PE-II were used to determine mortality. RESULTS: The SNAP-PE-II scoring system was applied to all patients, and the CRIB scoring system was used for 310 newborns with gestational age <32 weeks and weighing <1500 g. Of the 1668 patients, 188 died (mortality rate, 11.3%). Cut-off was found to vary with center, which changed specificity and sensitivity of the mortality scores. SNAP-PE-II significantly predicted mortality (P < 0.05) compared with CRIB. SNAP-PE-II also successfully predicted mortality in the group receiving antenatal corticosteroid compared with the group not receiving antenatal corticosteroid. CONCLUSION: SNAP-PE-II was a significant predictor of mortality in newborns with birthweight <1500 g compared with CRIB, and assessment of antenatal corticosteroid use in conjunction with SNAP-PE-II increased the accuracy of the prediction of mortality.