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Oral administration of aprepitant to prevent postoperative nausea in highly susceptible patients after gynecological laparoscopy

Journal title
Journal of anesthesia
Publication year
Jung, W. S.; Kim, Y. B.; Park, H. Y.; Choi, W. J.; Yang, H. S.

PURPOSE: The use of opioids following surgery is associated with a high incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to investigate the effect of orally administered aprepitant, a neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist, for reducing PONV in patients with fentanyl-based, patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) given intravenously after gynecological laparoscopy. METHODS: One hundred and twenty female patients (ages 21-60) undergoing laparoscopic hysterectomy were randomly allocated to receive 80 mg (A80 group, n = 40) or 125 mg aprepitant (A125 group, n = 40) or placebo (control group, n = 40) orally 2 h before anesthesia induction. Anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane and remifentanil, and PCA IV using fentanyl and ketorolac were provided for 48 h after surgery. Incidences of nausea, vomiting/retching, and use of rescue antiemetics were recorded at 2, 24, and 48 h after surgery. Complete response was defined as no PONV and no need for rescue treatment. RESULTS: The incidence of complete response was significantly lower in the A80 and A125 groups than in controls, 56 % and 63 %, vs. 28 %, respectively, P = 0.007 and P = 0.003, respectively, during the first 48 h, and 65 % and 65 % vs. 38 %, respectively, both P = 0.025, during the first 2 h. However, there were no statistically significant differences between A80 and A125 groups in the incidences of complete response and PONV during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Aprepitant 80 mg orally was effective in lowering the incidence of PONV in the first 48 h after anesthesia in patients receiving fentanyl-based PCA after gynecological laparoscopy.

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