Brain tumors constitute the largest source of oncologic mortality in children and low-grade gliomas are among most common pediatric central nervous system tumors. Pediatric low-grade gliomas differ from their counterparts in the adult population in their histopathology, genetics, and standard of care. Over the past decade, an increasingly detailed understanding of the molecular and genetic characteristics of pediatric brain tumors led to tailored therapy directed by integrated phenotypic and genotypic parameters and the availability of an increasing array of molecular-directed therapies. Advances in neuroimaging, conformal radiation therapy, and conventional chemotherapy further improved treatment outcomes. This article reviews the current classification of pediatric low-grade gliomas, their histopathologic and radiographic features, state-of-the-art surgical and adjuvant therapies, and emerging therapies currently under study in clinical trials.