OBJECTIVE: To examine sleep and sleep problems in children with chronic illness, and the potential effect of emotional and behavioral problems. METHODS: The Bergen Child Study is a total population study. Based on data from the second wave, information about sleep was given by 5,781 children and their parents, of which 496 children (8.6%) had a chronic illness. RESULTS: There were no differences in time in bed between children with a chronic illness and their healthy peers. However, the chronic illness group reported more problems falling asleep and had more nighttime awakenings. The increased risk for sleep problems was reduced to a nonsignificant level when adjusting for emotional and behavioral problems. CONCLUSIONS: The elevated rate of sleep problems and association with emotional and behavioral problems in children with chronic illness underline the importance of early detection and intervention in this group.