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Survival after stem-cell transplant in pediatric and young-adult patients with relapsed and refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

Journal title
Current medical research and opinion
Publication year
Crotta, A.; Zhang, J.; Keir, C.

OBJECTIVE: Allogeneic stem-cell transplant (allo-SCT) is the standard of care for pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who relapse after frontline chemotherapy; however, for patients who relapse after allo-SCT, outcomes are very poor. Few studies have examined overall survival in this patient population, particularly in patients who received a second allo-SCT. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis using data from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) registry. The study population included patients aged 3 to 21 years who were diagnosed with B-ALL and underwent their first allo-SCT between 2009 and 2013. The primary endpoint was the time from the date of posttransplant relapse to the date of death due to any reason. RESULTS: Outcomes in 1349 pediatric and young-adult patients were included in this analysis. The Kaplan-Meier estimated probability of survival at 3 years after first allo-SCT was 63.1% (95% CI, 60.2%-65.8%). Overall, 29.2% of patients relapsed after first allo-SCT and had a median survival of 7.4 months (95% CI, 6.0-9.6 months). Twenty-five patients in the analysis developed secondary malignancies, most of which were lymphoproliferative disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Survival rates are low in pediatric and young-adult patients who relapse after first and second allo-SCT, and new therapies are needed to improve outcomes in this population. This data can be used as a historical comparison for single-arm trials of novel therapies for this patient population, including chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy.

Research abstracts