BACKGROUND: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common childhood malignancy. This report describes the survival of children with ALL in the United States using the most comprehensive and up-to-date cancer registry data. METHODS: Data from 37 state cancer registries that cover approximately 80% of the US population were used. Age-standardized survival up to 5 years was estimated for children aged 0-14 years who were diagnosed with ALL during 2 periods (2001-2003 and 2004-2009). RESULTS: In total, 17,500 children with ALL were included. The pooled age-standardized net survival estimates for all US registries combined were 95% at 1 year, 90% at 3 years, and 86% at 5 years for children diagnosed during 2001-2003, and 96%, 91%, and 88%, respectively, for those diagnosed during 2004-2009. Black children who were diagnosed during 2001-2003 had lower 5-year survival (84%) than white children (87%) and had less improvement in survival by 2004-2009. For those diagnosed during 2004-2009, the 1-year and 5-year survival estimates were 96% and 89%, respectively, for white children and 96% and 84%, respectively, for black children. During 2004-2009, survival was highest among children aged 1 to 4 years (95%) and lowest among children aged <1 year (60%). CONCLUSIONS: The current results indicate that overall net survival from childhood ALL in the United States is high, but disparities by race still exist, especially beyond the first year after diagnosis. Clinical and public health strategies are needed to improve health care access, clinical trial enrollment, treatment, and survivorship care for children with ALL. Cancer 2017;123:5178-89. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.