OBJECTIVE: To review literature investigating school absence, behaviour problems and social relationships of children with cancer on return to school. Additionally, we reviewed interventions aimed at promoting successful school re-entry for children with cancer, and increasing classmates and teachers understanding of childhood cancer. METHODS: Electronic searches were used to identify studies examining the effects of school re-entry on children with cancer. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: School absences are higher for children with cancer than healthy children and those with other chronic conditions. Although there is mixed evidence about whether children have significant behavioural problems, studies involving social relationships generally conclude that children with cancer are more sensitive and isolated than peers, according to both peer and teacher report.