Strategies for the treatment of childhood cancer have significantly evolved over time. Years ago, surgery was the only option for treating childhood cancer. Now, research has advanced treatment options to include multimodal therapy with chemotherapy, radiation, surgery and hematopoeitic stem cell transplantation. The focus on gene therapy research is also increasing. Pediatric nurses must have a thorough understanding of the treatment for childhood cancer so that as frontline healthcare providers, they give accurate information to patients and their families, deliver appropriate care, and assist with gathering data in support of ongoing research.