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Up-to-date and projected estimates of survival for people with cystic fibrosis using baseline characteristics: A longitudinal study using UK patient registry data

Journal title
Journal of cystic fibrosis : official journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
Publication year
Keogh, R. H.; Szczesniak, R.; Taylor-Robinson, D.; Bilton, D.

BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common inherited disease in Caucasians, affecting around 10,000 individuals in the UK today. Prognosis has improved considerably over recent decades with ongoing improvements in treatment and care. Providing up-to-date survival predictions is important for patients, clinicians and health services planning. METHODS: Flexible parametric survival modelling of UK CF Registry data from 2011 to 2015, capturing 602 deaths in 10,428 individuals. Survival curves were estimated from birth; conditional on reaching older ages; and projected under different assumptions concerning future mortality trends, using baseline characteristics of sex, CFTR genotype (zero, one, two copies of F508del) and age at diagnosis. FINDINGS: Male sex was associated with better survival, as was older age at diagnosis, but only in F508del non-homozygotes. Survival did not differ by genotype among individuals diagnosed at birth. Median survival ages at birth in F508del homozygotes were 46years (males) and 41years (females), and similar in non-homozygotes diagnosed at birth. F508del heterozygotes diagnosed aged 5 had median survival ages of 57 (males) and 51 (females). Conditional on survival to 30, median survival age rises to 52 (males) and 49 (females) in homozygotes. Mortality rates decreased annually by 2% during 2006-2015. Future improvements at this rate suggest median survival ages for F508del homozygous babies of 65 (males) and 56 (females). INTERPRETATION: Over half of babies born today, and of individuals aged 30 and above today, can expect to survive into at least their fifth decade. RESEARCH IN CONTEXT: Evidence before this study We searched PubMed with terms "(cystic fibrosis survival) and (projection OR model OR registry OR United Kingdom OR UK)" to identify relevant studies on survival estimates for individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF). We also considered the most recent annual report from the UK Cystic Fibrosis Registry (Cystic Fibrosis Trust, 2016), a review by Buzzetti and colleagues (2009), the chapter on Epidemiology of Cystic Fibrosis by MacNeill (2016), the study of MacKenzie and colleagues (2014), and references therein. There have been many studies of factors associated with survival in CF; most have focused on identifying risk factors, and only a few have presented estimated survival curves, which are the focus of this work. The most recent study of survival in the UK is by Dodge and colleagues (2007), who used data obtained from CF clinics and the national death register, and gave an estimate of survival for babies born in 2003. We found no previous studies that have obtained detailed information on survival using UK Cystic Fibrosis Registry data. Jackson and colleagues obtained survival estimates for the US and Ireland using registry data (Jackson et al., 2011). MacKenzie and colleagues used US Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry data from 2000 to 2010 to project survival for children born and diagnosed with CF in 2010, accounting for sex, genotype and age at diagnosis (MacKenzie et al., 2014). Previous studies on estimated survival in CF have become out of date or have not accounted for the full range of patient characteristics available at birth. Few have presented conditional survival estimates (Dodge et al., 2007). Added value of this study This is the first study to yield detailed survival statistics using the UK Cystic Fibrosis Registry, which is one of the largest national CF registries outside of the US and has almost complete coverage of the UK CF population. The primary goal was to leverage the long-term follow-up of the nearly complete UK CF population available in the Registry for the purposes of producing accurate, precise predictions in the modern era of CF care. Estimates are presented from birth and conditional on survival to older ages. These are the first conditional estimates in CF to also account for genotype, sex and age at diagnosis, which were each included in the modelling using a flexible approach. Projections are also provided under different scenarios based on downward trends in mortality rates. Our use of flexible parametric survival models is novel in this field, and our approach could be used to provide modern survival statistics for other chronic diseases and disorders. Implications of all the available evidence Our estimates of future survival in CF under a range of different scenarios are based on data on nearly all individuals living with the disease in the UK in recent times, reflective of a modern era of care, and are most appropriate for the families of babies being born in the present day with CF. Conditional estimates inform patients who have already reached an older age, and their clinicians. Over half of babies born today, and of individuals aged 30years and above alive today, can expect to survive into their fifth decade. Insights based on our survival projections can be used to inform future needs in CF health care provision.

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